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同一性(どういつせい)とは、主に英語の「identity」を翻訳した語であり、多義語である。日本語に即して説明すれば、ひとくちに同一性といっても二種類の意味があり、「Aは何者なのか」という意味での同一性と、「AとBは同じだ」という意味での同一性がある。さらに以下のように細分化して言い換えられる。

この記事では、上記すべてをひっくるめて扱う。なお、同一性の対概念として差異性がある。

語源

英語の「identity」の語源は、ラテン語の「idem」に由来する。この「idem」という語の意味は、英語の「the same」におおよそあたる英語には「idem」に直接あたる語が無い。一方でドイツ語などにはある。(ラテン語の文法 などを参照)。このことから、英語の「identity」は「sameness」とも言い換えられる。

同一性と哲学

同一性は西洋の伝統としての哲学上、もっとも重要な概念のひとつであり、同一性によって、あるものは存在ないし定在として把握される、あるいは定立される。

哲学では、自分自身と一致しているべきもの、自己同一的に存在するもの、他のものに依存して存在するのではないものを実体(羅:substantia)という。

また、伝統的には「それは何であるか」という問いに対する答えとして与えられるものとして、現実に存在するあるものが、それ自身と同一であるという場合、そのために最低限持っていなければならない性質を考えることができる。このような性質を本質(ほんしつ)(希 (ousia), 羅 substantia / essentia)という。これに対して、本質の対語である実存(existentia)とは、外に立ち出たものex-sistereの意であり、現実に存在していることをいう。

または、同一性とは他のものから対立区分されていることで変わらずに等しくある個の性質をいう。そのような対立区分される個がないという意味での差異性の対語。

特に自己同一性(self-identity)というとき、あるものがそれ自身(self、ギリシア語のautosに由来)と等しくある性質をいう。
法律学では、著作者人格権の一種である同一性保持権(どういつせいほじけん)(right to the integrity of the work)とは、著作物及びその題号につき著作者の意に反して変更、切除その他の改変を禁止することができる権利のことをいう(日本の著作権法20条1項前段)。

経済学では、交換経済においては、貨幣は将来の財・サービスと交換可能な点、記号ないし代理としての同一性を有する。ただし、交換価値が何らかの方法で保証される必要がある。また貨幣には計算単位としての機能がある。これは共通の尺度としての貨幣が、異なる財を同一のもの(貨幣)に置きかえることで、それらの間での計算を可能とするというものである。

工学では、互換性を満たす部品は、機能の点で同一性を保証され、置き換え可能である。そのためには、あらかじめ標準としての規格を定めておくことが必要である。

脚注

外部リンク

関連項目

Category:命題論理の定理

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