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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - 暗渠

暗渠


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溝渠(こうきょ、英語:ditch)は、主に給排水を目的として造られる水路のうち、小規模な溝状のものの総称である。そのうち、公共用水域にあるものは「公共溝渠」(こうきょうこうきょ)と呼ばれる。

その状態等により、開渠(かいきょ)・明渠(めいきょ)、暗渠(あんきょ)、側溝(そっこう)などと呼ばれ、区別される。また開渠と暗渠を総称して管渠(かんきょ)と呼ばれる場合もある。

歴史

蒸発を防ぐための暗渠

日本国外の乾燥した地域に多く見られる。カナートを参照のこと。


ファイル:Shibuya Centergai.jpg|渋谷センター街の通りは暗渠化された河川(渋谷川の支流宇田川)の上に作られている。
ファイル:Nikaryo_Futago_06c2900v.jpg|暗渠化され歩道として使われている用水路二ヶ領用水跡)
ファイル:Suidodoro 06x2272sv.jpg|荒玉水道道路は自動車も通行可能だが、重量制限はある。
ファイル:Nikaryo_Futago_06c2902qs.jpg|暗渠化された用水路の上に残る橋桁と欄干(二ヶ領用水跡)

側溝

側溝(そっこう、, )
とは、道路鉄道敷、堤防の堤脚に沿って設けられる溝であり、専ら当該道路等の滞水を防ぐための排水目的で施工される。プレキャスト製品などで製作されているものもあり(U字溝やL字溝などと呼ばれる)、これについては一部JIS規格などの規格が定められているものもある(日本産業規格(土木および建築)の一覧参照)。状況(転落防止など)に応じて蓋(コンクリート製(前出のプレキャスト製品が多い)や金属製(鉄板やグレーチングと呼ばれる網状のもの))が設置される。但し、鉄道の場合は、信号線や電力線を通している側溝もあり、これらは必ずコンクリ製の蓋で保護されている場合が多い。

脚注

関連項目

外部リンク

Category:排水設備

wikipediaより

このキーワードに関連するベストプラクティス


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