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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - プロジェクト・ファイナンス

プロジェクト・ファイナンス


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プロジェクト・ファイナンス (PF, Project finance) は、金融用語の一つ。ストラクチャード・ファイナンス(SF, Structured finance)の一種で、コーポレート・ファイナンス (CF, corporate finance) やアセット・ファイナンス (AF, Asset finance) と対比して使われる。

概要

CFでは、企業が借入をするとき、企業全体の信用力を基礎に借入が行われる。一般には物的な担保を取り、加えて、ローンは遡及権(リコース)付きで組まれている。

PFでは、ある特定の事業からあがる予想収益を基礎に借入が行われる。担保になっているのは、その特定事業の資産全てであり、スポンサーからは追加の担保を取らない。ローンはスポンサーに対して遡及をしないノンリコースローンになっている。

PFでは、金融機関は、企業が行おうとする事業の将来予想により深く関わっており、そのリスクを負担している。このリスク負担に対応して、より高い収益を期待できる。このようなリスク負担を分散させるため、事業内容を開示して他の金融機関の参加を求めることが一般的である。また資産証券化(セキュリタイゼーション)の手法が組み合わされることも多い。

インフラ投資支援メソッドとして

PFは、その性質上、公共事業や公共的要素の強い民間事業について活用されている。民間の資金や経営手法などを活用して公共サービスを効率的に提供する手法であるとしてPFI (private finance initiative) と呼ばれることがある。

海外発展途上国における発電所や鉄道などのインフラ建設計画において、巨額になる工事費用を当該国が一度に支払うことが難しい場合、インフラ投資を促進する存在としての役割もPFは担う。その場合建設後の電気料金や運賃など営業収入も資産に算入される。

2010年10月に日本の受注が決まったベトナムの原子力発電所建設については、財務省所管の国際協力銀行がファイナンス役として参画している

参考文献

  • 横山士郎編『プロジェクト・ファイナンス』有斐閣ビジネス, 1985.
  • 小原克馬『プロジェクト・ファイナンス』金融財政事情研究会, 1997.
  • 日本開発銀行PFI研究会『PFIと事業家手法』金融財政事情研究会, 1998.
  • 第一勧銀国際金融部『PFIとプロジェクト・ファイナンス』東洋経済新報社, 1999.
  • 西川永幹「BOT,PFIとプロジェクト・ファイナンス」『神戸大学国民経済雑誌』18(2), 2000.
  • 若松仁「わが国におけるプロジェクト・ファイナンスの現状と課題」『三菱総合研究所所報』No.39, Sept.2001.
  • 野田由美子『PFIの知識』日本経済新聞社, 2003.
  • E.R.イェスコム著・佐々木仁訳『プロジェクトファイナンスの理論と実務』金融財政事情研究会, 2006.

脚注

関連項目

Category:インフラストラクチャー

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