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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - 着色料

着色料


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着色料(ちゃくしょくりょう)とは、食品医薬品口紅などの化粧品などに色をつけるためのものである。化学合成のタール色素や、原材料から抽出した色素などがある。

着色料として使用されるものには人体有害なものもあり、食品の着色(Food coloring)に使用できるかが判断の参考になる。なお、食品に添加され着色の機能を果たすものであっても、酸化チタンなどのように、壁塗り塗料などの主要な原料として使われているものもある。

食用色素

食品着色剤とも言い、食品に色をつけるために使用される。料理に彩りを与える効果がある。食品を利用したものと食品添加物がある。

日本では食品衛生法により、食品添加物として内閣府食品安全委員会食品安全基本法制定前は厚生労働省)がある添加量において、反復投与毒性試験、発がん性試験、変異原性試験より審査されそれらの毒性がないことを確認の上、厚生労働省が成分規格、使用基準を定め承認される。製造は、食品添加物製造業の許可を取得した工場で行われる。

なお、食品から作られ、食品衛生法改正前に使用されていた既存添加物(いわゆる天然添加物)は審査が行われていなかったが、順次、食品安全委員会により食品健康影響評価が実施されており、例えば、アカネ色素については遺伝毒性腎臓の発がん性が認められたため、2004年(平成16年)7月5日を既存添加物から削除され、食品に使用できなくなった。

なお日本においては後述するように、タール色素に対して安全性を問題視していたため、他国にないタール色素以外の色素が多数作られた。

一部の団体は、実験動物に大幅に過剰摂取や皮膚に塗布させることによって遺伝子を傷つけたり、ガンを引き起こすことがあるという報告があったとして、安全性を問題視している。ただし、食品に含まれる量であれば、相当な量を摂取しなければ影響はないという意見もある。

合成着色料は、石油を原料としているため危険で、天然着色料は食品や植物が原料となるものが多いため安全というイメージがあるが、天然だから安全で合成だから危険と、安易に判断するのは好ましくない。

用途

かき氷などのシロップジュースに用いられる。絵具スプレーなどにも使用される。医薬品・化粧品に関してはタール色素を参照。

主な種類

食品については省略する。いくつかの色素の語尾につくFCFは"For Coloring Food"ないし"For Colouring of Food"の略である。

タール色素

その他の色素

脚注

外部リンク

関連項目

  • 可食印刷 - 食用の着色料を用いて菓子などに画像をプリントする技術。

Category:トイレタリー

wikipediaより

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