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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - バードウォッチング

バードウォッチング


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野鳥観察(やちょうかんさつ)もしくはバードウォッチングアメリカ英語発音: ードゥワーチン(グ)、イギリス英語発音: ードゥウォッチン(グ)アメリカ英語発音: ーディン(グ)、イギリス英語発音: ーディン(グ))とは、野鳥を観察する趣味である。同好の士の間では鳥見(とりみ)と呼称することも多い。この趣味を楽しむ者は野鳥観察家またはバードウォッチャー(birdwatcher)と呼ばれる。

この趣味の発祥地はイギリスを中心としたヨーロッパであり、現在では英語圏アメリカ合衆国にもこの趣味を楽しむ人が多い。

概略

広い意味では、先に餌場や水場、砂場を作り、野鳥を集めて楽しむことも含まれる。しかし、一般には、観察者側から野鳥にできるだけ働きかけをしないことが重要視され、野鳥の生息環境に人間側が足を運び、自然状態の鳥を対象にすることが多い。鳥の鳴き声を聞き、姿を探し当て、その行動を観察し、記録するなどの行動のことを指す。探鳥とも呼ばれる。

森林河川湖沼湿原海岸干潟など)と、鳥類が多い様々な環境に人間が出向いて行われる。それぞれに観察できる鳥の種類は異なる。また、季節によっても違う種類の鳥が観察できるため、通年楽しめる趣味である。自然の中に身をおくため森林浴などの側面もあり、また適度な距離を歩くトレッキングハイキングなどを兼ねることも可能。幅広い年齢層が楽しめる趣味である。大都市などの市街地にも数多くの野鳥が生息していて、自宅の庭にバードテーブル、水場などを設置して窓辺から身近な野鳥の姿を観察することができる庭で楽しむ野鳥の本 (2007)、6-7頁

道具

肉眼観察以外にも、よりよい条件で観察を行うために、双眼鏡フィールドスコープと呼ばれる地上用の望遠鏡、又は高倍率の望遠レンズを付けたカメラなどが用いられることが多い。ただし、カメラは、それ以外のものとは用途が異なり、記録のための道具である。カメラに気を取られているとじっくり観察することができないため、嫌う人も多い。鳥の種類の同定のためには、野外で使いやすい小型で軽量の図鑑(通称「フィールドガイド」)が多く市販されている。野外用の小型図鑑には、野外での鳥の区別点のポイントや鳴き声の特徴などが重点的に記載されている。

Category:レジャー活動

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