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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - 竹とんぼ

竹とんぼ


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竹とんぼ(たけとんぼ、竹蜻蛉)とは、回転翼と翼をまわすためのによって構成される中国日本の伝統的な飛翔玩具である。

歴史

中国に古くからあり、東晋時代に葛洪が著した道教煉丹術の文献『抱朴子』にも「飛車」というものがでてくるJoseph Needham and Ling Wang (1965), Science and civilisation in China: Physics and physical technology, mechanical engineering Volume 4, Part 2, pp. 582–583。15世紀にはヨーロッパに伝わったとみられ、聖母子像の中にはこのような玩具を持った絵もありCharles H. Gibbs-Smith, Origins of the helicopter, New Scientist, vol. 14.4, 3 May 1962, p. 229Goebel, Greg. 25 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine The Invention Of The Helicopterルネサンス期のヨーロッパの芸術やレオナルド・ダヴィンチにも影響を与えているDonald F. Lach (1977).Asia in the making of Europe. Volume II, A Century of Wonder. p. 403。このことから中国学者ジョゼフ・ニーダムらは竹とんぼはヘリコプターの始祖となったとしているJoseph Needham, Kenneth Girdwood Robinson (2004). Science and civilisation in China, Volume 7: The Social Background, Part 2, General Conclusions and Reflections. Cambridge University Press. p. 225Leishman, J. Gordon (2006). Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–9. ISBN 0-521-85860-7

日本では奈良時代後半頃の長屋王邸跡から類似の木製品が出土しているほか、平安時代鎌倉時代の遺跡数ヶ所からの出土例もあるが、腐敗しやすい木製であるため例は限られている"鎌倉期の木製とんぼ出土 白山平泉寺"(中日新聞、2016年6月22日記事)。
"鎌倉時代の竹とんぼ出土、県内初 -平泉寺旧境内、祭祀に使用?-"(福井新聞、2016年6月22日記事)。

構造

竹を切り出してプロペラ状の竹片とし硬い竹ひごを軸となる心棒として取り付けたもの日本民具学会 『日本民具辞典』ぎょうせい p.322 1997年笹間良彦 『日本こどものあそび大図鑑』遊子館 p.126 2005年。名が示すとおり本来は製玩具であるが、プラスチック製など材質を変えたものもある。心棒を両手の手のひらでこすり合せるように回転させてプロペラの揚力で空へ飛ばす

竹とんぼの中には翼部分に2つの穴があり2股の心棒を用いて翼(プロペラ)だけ飛ばすものもある。さらに、巻きつけたを使うなどして回転翼部分のみを回転させ、これのみ飛翔する場合がある。翼の効率が同じなら翼が分離する型のほうが軽いため高く飛ぶ。

推進力は軸部分を回転させることで得る。上のように簡易なものの場合は両掌を相互に逆方向へすり合わせる動きで軸を回転させ利用するが、糸などで軸をコマのように回転させて揚力を得る場合には、軸に巻きつけられた糸を引くことによって、揚力を得る。

離陸時に与えられた回転力が慣性力として蓄えられ上昇する。慣性力による回転力が失われると下降するが、下から上に流れる空気により翼は回転し、オートローテーションの効果で滑空しながら下降する(自由落下では無い)。

イベント

脚注

関連項目

Category:日本の郷土玩具

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