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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - ドングリ

ドングリ


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ドングリあるいはどんぐり(団栗、無食子、)とは、広義にはブナ科の果実の俗称。狭義にはクリブナイヌブナ以外のブナ科の果実。最狭義にはブナ科のうち特にカシナラカシワなどコナラ属樹木の果実の総称をいう

ドングリは、一部または全体を殻斗(かくと、)に覆われる堅果であるが、これはブナ科の果実に共通した特徴であり、またブナ科にほぼ固有の特徴である。

ブナ科の果実には、「どんぐり」以外の固有の名称を持つものもある。クリの果実は「栗」もしくは「栗の実」と呼ばれる。「椎(しい)の実」、「楢(なら)の実」の語もある。ブナの果実は「そばぐり」と呼ばれることもある。

概要

ドングリは果実堅果)である。

どんぐりの殻斗(一番外側の固い皮)とそのすぐ下の渋皮(しぶかわ)の内側は種子である。つまりどんぐりの大部分は種子である(体積・質量の大部分は種子)。どんぐりから芽が出て、コナラの樹木へと育つ

樹種により形状は多様であるが、ドングリに限らずブナ科の果実の共通の特徴として、先端はとがり、表面の皮は硬く、上部はすべすべして茶色、下部はぶつぶつした薄めの褐色である。果実の下部または全部を覆うおわん状・まり状のものは殻斗である。ドングリの殻斗は俗には「ぼうし」「はかま」などと呼ばれる。殻斗は総苞片が集まり、癒合変形、乾燥したものであり、ブナ科とナンキョクブナ科殻斗を持つなど、ブナ属に酷似する果実をつけるナンキョクブナ科はブナ科に近縁である。かつてはブナ科のナンキョクブナ属に分類されていた。の果実特有のものである。このことから、かつてブナ科は殻斗科と呼ばれた。ブナ科の堅果は、他の堅果と区別して殻斗果またはどんぐり状果と呼ばれる。

ドングリのイメージとして、細長く、下部をぶつぶつとした殻斗が覆う、というものがしばしば見られるが、クヌギではドングリは丸く、殻斗は毛が生えたようになっている。クリまたスダジイなど殻斗がドングリ全体を覆うものもある。クリの殻斗はトゲが生え、「イガ」と呼ばれる。

内部の種子の大部分を占める子葉デンプン質に富み、人間を含む動物の食料になる。日本の古典的な玩具独楽など)の材料にもなった。

分類と判別

ドングリからその樹を判別することは可能だが難しく、木自体を見る方がはるかにやさしい。ただし、の見分けは比較的やさしい。以下は日本に自生するものの見分け方である

  • コナラ属コナラ亜属 - 果実の基部は湾入せず、殻斗は果実の基部を覆う。殻斗は鱗片状。
    • ナラの仲間(落葉樹)
    • カシの仲間(常緑樹)
  • コナラ属アカガシ亜属 - 果実の基部は湾入せず、殻斗は果実の基部を覆う。殻斗は輪層状。
  • マテバシイ属(常緑樹) - 果実の基部が湾入し、殻斗は果実の基部を覆う。2、3の殻斗が基部で癒合している場合がある。
  • クリ属(落葉樹) - 果実は稜が2つあり、殻斗が全体を覆う。食用に極めて適しており、通常ドングリとは呼ばれないが、ブナ科であり広義にはドングリに含まれる。
  • シイ属(クリガシ属、常緑樹) - 果実は稜がなく、球状ー円柱状で、殻斗が全体を覆う。
  • ブナ属(落葉樹) - 果実は稜が3つあり、三角錐状、殻斗が全体を覆う。普通はドングリとは呼ばれない。

外部リンク

Category:秋の季語

wikipediaより

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