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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - 地域のトップランナーとして 自治体では全国初のISO14001自己適合宣言とその継続

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飯田市
地域のトップランナーとして 自治体では全国初のISO14001自己適合宣言とその継続


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(1)自治体では全国初の取り組み
(2)適合性を保証するための、地域を巻き込んだ相互内部監査の仕組み
(3)監査に参加するメンバーのスキルアップなど、関係者全員がメリットを享受する仕掛け
(4)相互内部監査をきっかけにした民間、行政を問わない交流の広がり、深まり

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  • 分野:B.環境マネジメントシステム

事例本文

自己適合宣言に至る経緯と現状

2000年にISO14001認証を取得した飯田市は、3年間の登録有効期限を迎える2003年1月25日、
ISO14001の規定に基づき「自己適合宣言」を行った。

現在では自治体による自己適合宣言も珍しくなくなったが、
当時、自治体では全国初の取り組みとして注目を集めた。

ISO14001には、運用している環境マネジメントシステム(以下、EMS)が
規格に適合していることを他者に対して実証する方法として
「外部組織による審査登録」と「規格との適合を自己決定し自己宣言する」ことが定められている。

しかしISO14001はその有効性と役割の大きさは認められるものの、
(1)少人数の審査員による限られた時間でのサンプリング審査という制約から形式的にならざるを得ない、
(2)ISO14001規格通りのシステムを構築し、審査に通ることだけが重要視される、
   認証取得に係る経費が大きい、など種々の限界があることも否めない。

そこで、都市像として「人も自然も美しく、輝くまち‐環境文化都市‐」を掲げる飯田市では、
9回におよぶマニュアル改正、職員教育の実施等を積み重ね、自己適合宣言への体制づくり、
仕組みづくりを1年間検討した結果、飯田市役所における同宣言の機が熟したと判断した。

自己適合宣言により、外部組織による審査登録よりも説明責任、職員教育など、
さらに重い自己責任が課せられることになった。

飯田市では「環境自治体会議」「持続可能な都市のための20%クラブ」
環境自治体ISO会議」「長野県環境ISO自治体ネットワーク」等に参加し、
自らの取り組みを検証し、「地域ぐるみ環境ISO研究会」の活動を通じて
地元民間企業との実質的な連携も続けてきた。
その努力の成果が今回実を結んだ形である。

そもそもEMS構築における自治体の役割は、事業活動自体の環境負荷を減らすことだけではない。
飯田市は、外部による「お墨付き」よりも、実質的な自己改善を行い、
その成果を地域へ還元することを通し、持続可能な地域社会づくりをリードする存在となることを選択したのである。

ISO14001の適用範囲はサイトごとである。
飯田市はスタート時点では市庁舎本庁のみで自己適合宣言を行い、それ以外の支所や学校、
公共施設は独自に構築した簡易型EMSである「いいむす21」を適用してきた。

このほど、2012年度から市内の全庁舎、公共施設自己適合宣言の適用を受けることになる見込みである。


自己適合宣言を支える相互内部監査

自己適合宣言信頼性は、内部職員による監査だけでは担保が難しい。
そこで2001年度から、飯田市を含め地域のISO14001取得事業者や
取得をめざす事業者を会員とする「地域ぐるみ環境ISO研究会」からも民間からの監査員として参加を求め、
反対に会員企業の監査に飯田市からも職員を派遣する相互内部監査の仕組みを実施した。
これは、外部認証による限界を踏まえ、自己適合宣言への移行を視野に入れて始めたものであるという。

その後、長野県内の自治体を中心に、自治体間の相互内部監査の輪は広がった。
内部監査員は開始当初は6事業所(7人)だけだった。
それが、年によって異なるものの、2011年度には、正規の監査員が延べ25人と
「オブザーバー」延べ33人、計58人の参加があり、県内の自治体からは3自治体、3人のEMS審査員のほか、
企業担当者、大学生も参加するまでに拡大している。

仕組みについては年々改良を加え、現在では外部監査員は
ウェブサイトでの公募形式で募集している(ただし専門性や経験による要件あり)。
地域ぐるみ環境ISO研究会の加入事業所の担当者を
市民監査員」として委嘱し、同様の方法で公募している。

外部監査員の参加にかかる経費は、各自の自己負担という条件で受け入れている。
また、市役所内における全部署が個々に内部監査を受ける(部長も個々に内部監査を受ける)。
そのために監査にかかる期間は1か月半にも及ぶ。


■成果と今後の課題

これまで約10年の実践の中で次のような成果が現れている。
(1)市役所で行う環境に関するイベント(ISO自己適合記念のシンポジウムや、
   ISOの公開トップインタビュー)などにおける職員の参加人数が増加傾向にあることから、
   職員の環境に対する意識が向上したと考えられる。
(2)市のあらゆる分野における事務事業に関して、各部署において担当者が、
   ISOの実行計画管理の中で、事務事業それ自体や事務事業に関連した環境に関する事柄について
   「目的・目標」を設定し、毎年、進捗管理することなどを通じて
   自然と「環境」の視点を持つようになってきていることから、
   事務事業を行う上で「環境」の視点を持つようになったと考えられる。
(3)毎年、課長級の職員が他部署の内部監査を行うことにより、
   内部監査員としての力量が他の自治体と比較しても高くなった(外部監査員の評による)。
(4)経費の削減(自己宣言当時、審査登録だと更新費用が約200万円、
   登録維持管理費が年間約80万円かかった。
(5)相互内部監査により他の自治体職員との交流が広がった。

一方、これまでの実践で明らかになった課題もある。  
例えば、市役所では事務事業進行管理や、人事評価制度、
ISOによる実行計画管理という3種類の帳票類作成を行なっているが、
これにかかる事務負担の増加が問題になっており、帳票類やシステムの集約化、簡素化等が課題となっている。

また、企業や自治体において、環境担当者が代わることで内部監査への参加が
消極的になるケースが見られるため、今後も継続的に相互内部監査員の確保とともに
その質を維持、向上させていくことも今後の大きな課題である。

自治体情報

自治体名 飯田市(外部リンク)
都道府県名 長野県
人口 105,335人
部署名 地球温暖化対策課ISO推進係
TEL 0265-22-4511(内線5245)
FAX 0265-22-4673
E-mail sakugen_co2@city.iida.nagano.jp

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