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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - 価値

価値


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価値(かち)とは、あるものを他のものよりも上位に位置づける理由となる性質、人間の肉体的、精神的欲求を満たす性質カール・マルクス資本論、あるいは真・あるいはなど人間社会の存続にとってプラスの普遍性をもつと考えられる概念の総称。

殆どの場合、物事の持つ、目的の実現に役に立つ性質、もしくは重要な性質や程度を指す。何に価値があり、何には価値がない、とするひとりひとりのうちにある判断の体系を価値観と言う。大辞林「いかなる物事に価値を認めるかという個人個人の評価的判断」

倫理における価値

倫理、哲学及び刑法学においては「価値」は「良いという性質」のこと。逆に、「悪いという性質」は「反価値」(刑法学の用語では一般に「無価値」)という。広義には、両者を併せて「価値」と呼ぶ。最も重要な用法は新カント学派西南ドイツ学派など)によるもので、自然界と英知界の二元論的世界観のうち後者に重きを置き、価値が判断の際の必須条件であると考える。

経済学における価値

経済学では商品市場で取引される価値(交換価値)を二つの面から研究する。欲求の充足という消費面からのアプローチが効用価値説で、もう一つが生産面からアプローチした労働価値説である。

効用価値説

価値の根源を人間の欲求に求める説。欲求は主観的なものであり、異なる個人間での比較のための絶対的尺度とはなり得ない。交換が行われるのは、相互の欲求に差異があるからであり、交換により双方が利益を得て(消費者余剰生産者余剰)、パレート効率を達成する。効用価値説は価値を商品固有の属性とは見なさないため、価値という用語の代わりに効用を用いる。効用は個人に特有で主観的なものであり、異なる個人の効用は比較できない。そして、取引成立のための最終交換単位による効用の増加分(限界効用)が価値(価格)決定に大きな役割を果たすことを明らかにし、古典派経済学で言う使用価値と交換価値とを、効用と限界効用によって消費面から統一的に説明した。

労働価値説

人間の労働が価値を生み、その労働が商品の価値を決めるという説。アダム・スミスデヴィッド・リカードを中心とする古典派経済学で考えられ、カール・マルクスに受け継がれた。

価値のパラドックス

は有用だが通常は安価であり、宝石はさほど有用とはいえないが、非常に高価である。これは「価値のパラドックス」と呼ばれ、これを説明することは、初期の経済学の難問であった。これを解決するため、交換価値使用価値をはっきり区別し、直接の関連を否定して考えるようになった。すなわち、水は使用価値は高いが、交換価値は低い。また、宝石は使用価値は低いが、交換価値は高い。古典派経済学では価値の大小の理由として、希少性が考えられた。近代経済学(限界効用学派)では、全部効用と限界効用の区別により二者を消費面から統一的に説明することでこの問題を解決した。

希少性と限界価値

水の価格(交換価値)は、砂漠などでは非常に高価となる場合もあるが、通常は安価である。その理由は、水がすでに豊富である(希少性に乏しい)場合には、水の追加1単位の価値(限界価値すなわち消費者の追加欲求)が低いことによる。(消費面からの説明)

希少性と労働価値

水の価格(交換価値)は、砂漠などでは非常に高価となる場合もあるが、通常は安価である。その理由は、水がすでに豊富である場合には、水が消費されるまでに費やされる労働力は最小ですむことによる。(遠くの井戸から汲んでこなくてもすむ。)(生産面からの説明)

マーケティングにおける価値

マーケティングにおける価値は、顧客知覚価値 (customer-perceived value, CPV)としても知られ、他の製品と比較した場合の、ある製品の利点とコストに対する見込み客の評価の違いである。

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