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環境自治体ベストプラクティス集 - 風景

風景


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風景(ふうけい)は、に見える様子景色のことである。類義語景観、光景などが挙げられる。絵画作品の題材写真作品の題材にされたり、観光資源として活用される場合もある。

景観は客観的な景色、ランドスケープに用いて、主に都市など人工的なもの(用語例として「都市景観」)、風景は主観的な景色、ランドスケープに用い、主に自然に対して(用語例として「自然風景」)使われることが多い(ただし、盛り場風景、授業風景などの用例もある)。また、光景は瞬間的なもの、景観・風景は持続的なものに使われることが多い。

現在では「景観」と「風景」はほとんど同じ意味で使われる。しかし近代合理主義的理解が支配的だった頃は、「景観」は客観的に対象を記述するもので価他を含まないとされ、「風景」は逆に主観的な情動で客観性に欠けるとされていた。今でも若干その傾向は残っており、風景は「原風景」「風景美」のように、景観は文化的景観歴史的景観景観評価のように使われる。

日本の風景

古代以来の伝統として、和歌歌枕があった。名歌に詠まれた土地(名所)を訪れ、古人を偲んで歌を詠む、という伝統があり、住吉の浜などが有名な歌枕であった。

中国で発達した山水画日本にも大きな影響を与えた。山水画では、名所として瀟湘八景湖南省洞庭湖付近の風景)が選ばれ、好んで画題とされていた。日本の画人も瀟湘八景を題材としたが、その影響で室町時代末以降、近江八景(琵琶湖付近の風景)が選ばれた。また、雪舟の水墨画「天橋立図」も有名である。

江戸時代初期に松島宮島天橋立が「日本三処奇観」と呼ばれ、やがて日本三景として定着した。江戸時代は各国の地理に関心が高まった時代で、『都名所図会』『江戸名所図会』などの刊行や、葛飾北斎の「富嶽三十六景」シリーズなども自然風景への関心を示していると言えよう。

明治時代中期にベストセラーとなった志賀重昂

関連項目

Category:視覚

wikipediaより

このキーワードに関連するベストプラクティス


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